Moon Statistics / Measurements

What are the moons measurements and statistics?


Weight and Density of the moon


Mass:
8 x 1019 tons
80,000,000,000,000,000,000 tons
7.347 x 1022 kg
73,470,000,000,000,000,000,000 kg

(The mass of a body is a measure of how much matter it contains. It is different to weight as weight depends on what gravity the mass is being measured in.)

Mass Ratio Earth/Moon:
1/81.301
0.01230

(A 'Mass Ratio' is how much of one mass will fit in another.)

Volume:
2.4 x 103 miles3
2.197 x 1010 km3
0.0203 Earth's volume

(Volume is amount of area the moon could hold if if were empty. It is not how loud it is :)

Mean Density:
208 lb/ft3
3.34 g/cm3
3.33 more dense than water
0.6 Earth's density

('Mean' means average)

Gravity at the Surface:
5.31 ft/sec2
1.62 m/s2
0.1667 g
1/6 Earth's gravity

Escape Velocity:
1.48 miles/sec
2.38 km/sec

(The speed needed to "break free" from the gravitational field and get into space)

Angles and Speeds of the moon



Mean Inclination to Lunar Equator:
60 41'

Mean Orbital Inclination to Ecliptic:
50 08'43"

Oscillation of orbital inclination to Equator:
00 9' every 173 days

Inclination of Lunar Equator to Ecliptic:
10 32'33"

Period of Revolution of Perigee:
3,232 days

Orbital Direction:
East
Counter clockwise

Mean Orbital Speed:
2,287 miles/hour
3,683 km/hr
33 minutes arc/hour

Daily Sidereal Motion:
13.176358 degrees

Mean Centripetal Acceleration:
0.01 ft/s2
0.00272 M/s2
0.0003 g

Mean Eccentricity of Orbit:
0.0549
(mean eccentricity of Earths orbit is 0.0167)

Synodic Month / Average length of lunar day (new moon to new moon):
29.53059 days
29 days, 12 hr, 44 min, 2.8 sec

Sidereal Month (star to star):
27.32166 days
27 days, 7 hr, 43 min, 11.5 sec

Anomalistic Month (Apogee to Apogee or Perigee to Perigee):
27.55455 days
27 days, 13 hr, 18 min, 33.2 sec

Nodical Month, Draconic Month (Node to Node):
27.21222 days
27 days, 5 hr, 5 min, 35.8 sec

Tropical Month (First point of Aries to first point of Aries):
27.321582 days
7 days, 7 hr, 43 min, 4.7 sec

Regression of Nodes:
6,798 days
18.6247 years
19.538 degrees per year

Rotational Period:
27.321661 days
27 days, 7 hr, 43 min, 11.5 sec

Mean orbital velocity:
1.03 km/sec

Orbital eccentricity:
0.0549

Tilt of axis:
1.5424 degrees

Orbital inclination:
5.1454 degrees

Size of the moon


Circumference:
10,930 km
6,790 miles
0.27 of Earths circumference
400 times smaller than the sun 

Diameter:
3,476 km
2,160 miles
0.27 of Earth's diameter
400 times smaller than the sun

Mean radius:
1,737.5 km
1,079 miles

Equatorial radius:
1,738 km
1,079 miles

Polar radius:
1,735 km
1,077 miles

Mean Angular Diameter:
31'07"

Surface Area:
14,657,449 miles2
37,958,621 km2
9.4 Billion acres

Visible Surface:
41 percent during one lunar cycle
18 percent additional surface visible due to librations
59 percent total visible surface

Parallax:
0.9507 degrees

Angular Diameter:
0.5181 degrees

Distances of the moon


Mean distance from Earth:
384,400 km
238,712 miles
60.27 Earth radii
0.002 570 a.u.

Greatest distance from Earth (Apogee):
406,740 km
252,586 miles

Shortest distance from Earth (Perigee):
356,410 km
221,331 miles

Increase in mean distance from earth:
1.5 inches/year
3.8 cm/year

Flight time to the moon:
60-70 hours

Minimum distance from the sun:
91,238,855.1 miles

Maximum distance from the sun:
94,738,855.1 miles

Brightness of the moon



Mean Full Moon Magnitude (Vo):
-12.74 magnitude
450,000 times less bright than the Sun (-26.7)

Visual geometric albedo:
0.12
(An albedo is determined by measuring the the light shining on an object and the ratio of light that is reflected back.  If something reflects 100% of the light it has an albedo of 1.)

Average Albedo (reflective percentage):
0.07
(it reflects about 7% of the sun's light)

Light travel from the sun to the moon:
 8.28 minutes (light-minutes)


Light travel from the moon to earth:
1.255 seconds (light-seconds)

Temperature of the moon


Mean surface temperature (day):
107°C
224°F

Mean surface temperature (night):
-153°C
-243°F

Maximum surface temperature:
123°C
253°F

Minimum surface temperature:
-233°C
-387°F

History of the moon


Age of moon:
Scientific estimate - 4.6 billion years
Biblical claim - 6000 years

Formation:
Scientific estimate - This has changed several times and is still disputed. From Fission hypothesis, to Capture hypothesis, to Co-formation hypothesis to one of the
current estimates: Giant impact hypothesis - that is, Earth being impacted with an object the size of mars came to form the moon.
Biblical claim - created by God on the fourth day of creation. Genesis chapter 1, verses 14 to 19
Qur'an's claim - created by Allah

First visited by humans
July 20, 1969